Basic Music Series

Lesson I.9 Intervals II

I.9

Review 1.8

Intervallia II

Intervals II

Intervals -

combination of two frequencies being played simultaneously; we hear two or more frequencies as one sound or experience

Perfect Intervals

The Octave 2:1

The Fifth 3:2

The Fourth 4:3

Imperfect Intervals

Minor/Major

2nds

3rds

6ths

7ths

Harmonic Series Intervals

1 Octave

2 Fifth

3 Four

4 Major Third

5 minor Third

6 minor Third

7 -11 Major second

12 -20 minor second

21 + < minor seconds

I.9

Consonantes

Consonants

con + sono = to sound together

Imperfect intervals are separated into two classes: consonants and dissonants

In the harmonic series, the fifth and sixth intervals to occur are the major third followed by the minor third.
 

3rds:

 

Major 3rd | 4: 1/2 steps

 

 

C D E  - C/E

1 2 3  - M3

Minor 3rd | 3: 1/2 steps

E F G - E/G

1  2 3  - m3

6ths:

Major 6th | 9: 1/2 steps

C D E F G A - C/A

1 2 3 4 5 6 - M6th

 

Minor 6th | 8: 1/2 steps

 

E F G A B C  -  E/C

1 2  3  4  5 6 - m6th


 

Inversion -

If the bottom note of a third is placed on top; i.e. C/E becomes E/C: it becomes a sixth. A sixth is said to be an INVERSION of a third.

I.9

Dissonantes

Dissonants

dis + sono = to sound apart

In the harmonic series, the seconds appear after the 7th partial.
 

2nds:

Major 2rd | 2: 1/2 steps

C D  - C/D

1 2  - M2

Minor 2rd | 1: 1/2 steps

E F - E/F

1  2   - m2

7ths:

Major 7th | 11 : 1/2 steps

C D E F G A B - C/B

1 2 3 4 5 6  7 - M7th

 

Minor 7th | 10 : 1/2 steps

 

E F G A B C  D -  E/D

1 2  3  4  5 6 7 - m7th


 

Inversion -

If the bottom note of a second is placed on top; i.e. D/E becomes E/D: it becomes a seventh. A seventh is said to be an INVERSION of a second.

I.9

Modalitas

Modality

We have now filled in the octave with our seven natural notes and their chromatic flavors..

Starting with A, we have discovered this pattern between the octave based on the harmonic series.

A B C D E F G A

What happened if we start on B?

B C D E F G A B

or C?

C D E F G A B C

These are called modes and there are seven of them based on which of the seven natural notes is considered the "tonic" or 1st note.

A is the tonic in

A-Mode:

A B C D E F G A

but A it is the 6th in C-Mode:

C D E F G A B C

Since the tonic (primary or first note) has more weight than the other notes, it provides natural tension that composers use to create musical motion and meaning.

Each mode is not equal, having a different arrangement of major and minor steps.

We will visit the major and minors steps in the next lesson and see how it lead to key and Tonality.

The mode used this video is A-mode.

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